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Amalgamation: In the Nature of Merger and Purchase

The transferor company’s shareholders exchange their shares for shares in the combined business. A completely new corporation is created as a result of the merging. In amalgamation, the corporations taking part in the merger process are separate. This is due to the fact that an absorbing company is anticipated to be larger than an absorbed business.

To understand what this term actually means and how it works let us have a look at the process in a little more detail. The two companies combine shareholder interests as well as assets and liabilities using the merger amalgamation process. Accounting modifications to book values are not required, and the company’s operations can continue after the merger is completed. The shareholders’ stock is retained, but it is transferred to the new business. The shareholders of the transferee company become the transferor company holding a minimum of 90% face value of equity shares. In this type of amalgamation, no adjustments are made among the companies to book values.

  • The transferor company’s shareholders exchange their shares for shares in the combined business.
  • Since these businesses have similar distribution networks, production processes, or overlapping technologies, among other factors, mergers between these businesses typically increase market share and expand product lines.
  • The newly established entity’s balance sheet contains and transfers the assets and liabilities of the preexisting firms.
  • As a merger of two firms creates a new entity, a minimum of three companies are needed.

Purchase Consideration refers to the price paid by the vendee company to the vendor company, is called purchase consideration. It is the total of shares, debentures, etc. issued and the payment made in cash or kind. Direct payments made by the transferee company to the creditors or debenture holders will not be taken into account while calculating the purchase consideration.

The first type of amalgamation is a kind of amalgamation where all the companies involved in the amalgamation process combine their assets, liabilities, and shareholders’ interests. All the assets and liabilities of the transferor company became the assets and liabilities of the transferee company. Once the new company officially becomes an entity, it issues shares to shareholders of the weaker or transferor company. The weaker company is then liquidated and all assets, resources and liabilities of this company are taken over by the stronger or transferee company.

How Amalgamations Work

Even when a new company is formed, amalgamation typically loses favour in the United States and is replaced with a merger or consolidation. So, it can be seen that amalgamation is considered one of the tools companies use to either manipulate market competition or expand their market offerings. It is a mutual advantage shared between the acquired companies and the acquirer. The term amalgamation has become obsolete and not commonly used in developing countries like the United States of America. The terms like merger and consolidation have taken the place of amalgamation.

  • But it poses a few queries which need to be addressed by the firms involved.
  • The terms of the amalgamation are finalised by the board of directors of the involved companies.
  • The merger of HDFC Ltd. and HDFC Bank, valued at $58.5 billion, which took place in April 2022, accounted for the majority of the corporate growth in India.

That means, the larger companies buy the smaller company and all its assets. In this type of amalgamation, the transferor company doesn’t hold any share in the equity of the https://1investing.in/ newly formed company after the amalgamation. However, sometimes forming a completely new company by combining the two existing companies to get more benefits may take place.

However, it is to be noted that the amalgamation and merger of the terms are used interchangeably in certain counties. For instance, countries like the United States popularly use mergers or consolidation instead of amalgamation, while in India, amalgamation is still in vogue. These examples are programmatically compiled from various online sources to illustrate current usage of the word ‘amalgam.’ Any opinions expressed in the examples do not represent those of Merriam-Webster or its editors. Amalgamation is the process of combining or uniting multiple entities into one form. Once approved, the new company officially becomes a legal entity and can issue shares of stock in its own name. The terms of an amalgamation are finalized by the board of directors of each company involved.

Thesaurus Entries Near amalgamation

Those liabilities which are not taken over by the vendee company has to be met by the vendor company. The terms of the amalgamation are finalised by the board of directors of the involved companies. After this the detailed plan is prepared and submitted to the High court and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). These authorities need to approve the submitted plan and the shareholders of the new company for the process to go further. Amalgamations are one of several ways that existing companies can join forces, in this case creating an entirely new company.

In amalgamation, the companies that are wound up or merged are termed as vendor or transferor companies. On the other hand, the new company that acquires the liquidated ones or the company with which the vendor company is combined is considered as the transferee or vendee company. In general, the objective of an amalgamation is to establish a unique entity capable of more effectively competing in the marketplace, while also benefiting from greater economies of scale. In that respect it is not all that different from an acquisition and similar strategies to aid corporate growth. While amalgamations tend to involve voluntary agreements between the different parties, acquisitions can occur without the assent of the acquired company, in what’s known as a hostile takeover.

Acculturation is one of several forms of culture contact, and has a couple of closely related terms, including assimilation and amalgamation. Although all three of these words refer to changes due to contact between different cultures, there are notable differences between them. Acculturation is often tied to political conquest or expansion, and is applied to the process of change in beliefs or traditional practices that occurs when the cultural system of one group displaces that of another.

On the other hand, the term amalgamation is used when a new entity is created after combining one or more companies. In this process, all the companies involved leave their previous identity to form a new body. The second type of amalgamation is a kind of purchase of one company to buy the other company.

Advantages and Disadvantages

In India, for example, that authority resides in the High Court and Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI). Pooling of Interest Method is used for accounting in the books of transferee company. Shareholders of the absorbed company receive shares of the acquiring company.


It hopes to obtain synergy benefits through a well-planned restructuring strategy. Higher earnings emerge from such a reduction in the cost of capital. If a company wants to grow or survive in a highly competitive market, it must restructure and focus on its competitive advantage.

Drawbacks of Amalgamation

Corporate restructuring is the process of reorganising a company’s activities in order to increase productivity and profitability. Restructuring is now a purposeful corporate decision rather than an option. The primary goals of corporate restructuring are cost-cutting strategies to boost productivity and profitability.

If the purchase considerations are higher than the Net Asset Value (NAV), then the increased value is referred to as goodwill. On the other hand, if purchase considerations are lower than the Net Asset Value, then the decreased amount is referred to as Capital Reserves. The amalgamation of two or more companies is possible only if the companies are engaged in the same line of business and have little bit similar production operations. Companies opting for amalgamation intend to expand services provided by them and diversify their business operations. Amalgamate implies the forming of a close union without complete loss of individual identities.

Download Black by ClearTax App to file returns from your mobile phone. Due to amalgamation, consumers can submit their KYC documents again. A merger in which a profitable company merges with a struggling one or a parent corporation joins forces with a subsidiary. The merger of HDFC Ltd. and HDFC Bank, valued at $58.5 billion, which took place in April 2022, accounted for the majority of the corporate growth in India.

During an amalgamation, the transferor company is absorbed by the stronger transferee company which then leads to the formation of a completely new company with more assets and a stronger customer base. The process of amalgamation helps to increase the cash resources, eliminate competition and save companies on taxes. But it can also have a negative effect where if too much competition is cut out, it can lead to a monopoly and the workforce might get scaled down which will increase the debt load of the new entity/organisation. A new or existing company is formed by the combination of two or more businesses, absorbing the other target businesses.

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